Oral surgery is a branch of dentistry that includes various surgical procedures to resolve anatomical and biological problems in the oral cavity.
The most common oral surgical procedures include:
- alveotomy (extraction of teeth and immature or retained wisdom teeth),
- apicoectomy (removal of the tooth root tip),
- augmentation (increase in bone volume)
- extraction of leftover or broken tooth roots.
Oral surgery also helps in orthodontic therapy, and implantology, and it is used to correct various irregularities and defects of the face and jaw.
Alveotomy is one of the most common dental surgical procedures. Alveotomy is the process of extracting wisdom teeth that have not yet emerged or have only partially emerged, for example due to the positioning of the adjacent teeth or a lack of space in the dental arch. This type of tooth is called an impacted or retained tooth.
Impacted teeth are prone to inflammation due to food becoming deposited in the soft tissue that partially covers the masticatory surface of the tooth, and a pocket being created between the crown of the tooth and the gingiva that is a breeding ground for bacteria. In some cases, the inflammation can spread to the surrounding bone and soft tissues. Also, an impacted tooth can damage the root of an adjacent tooth or press on a nerve, causing neuralgic pain.
Due to these complications, it is best to remove the impacted wisdom tooth as soon as possible. The alveotomy is performed under local anaesthesia, and the patient does not feel any pain during the procedure, only pressure. After the procedure, the wound is sutured, and the patient can take painkillers or apply cold compresses if needed.
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Apicoectomy is a minor surgical procedure resulting from the inflammation of the root tip. It occurs only if the inflammation of the tooth root cannot be solved in the usual ways, such as cleaning.
In order to get satisfactory results, we surgically remove the tip of the root by cutting and raising the gums and removing the inflamed part, and by closing the rest of the root so inflammations no longer occur.
Loss of dental bone mass caused by tooth extraction, inflammation or mechanical trauma is often an obstacle to placing a dental implant, and it is necessary to compensate for the lost dental bone.
Dental bone augmentation is a standard oral surgical procedure in which artificially produced materials of synthetic or animal origin or a patient’s bone transplanted from another place in the body are used to compensate for the bone volume, creating a good base for long-term implant placement.